Physical optics (PO) is a well-known and widely used technique for calculating the scattering from perfectly electrically conducting (PEC) scatterers.

The PO scattered field is accurate at high frequencies where the scattering contributions from edges, corners, and shadow boundaries are insignificant compared to the PO contribution. The PO scattered field is usually determined by numerically calculating a traditional surface radiation integral, over the illuminated part of the scatterer, of the PO surface current density, which equals two times the normal surface unit vector cross the incident magnetic field. However, the required surface integration is very time consuming, especially in an antenna synthesis in which many PO calculations must be carried out for various different positions and shapes of antennas and scatterers. Therefore, it is of high interest to be able to calculate the PO scattered field as a line integral along the edge of the scattering structure because this is much less time consuming than calculating a surface integral. In the Antenna and Electromagnetics Group varous line integral representations of the PO scattered field has been derived for the case of scattering by planar structures illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The results are published in the following papers:

- Peter Meincke, Olav Breinbjerg, and Erik Jørgensen, "An exact line integral representation of the magnetic physical optics scattered field," accepted for publication in
*IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat*., March 2003. - S. Arslanagic, P. Meincke, E. Jørgensen, and O. Breinbjerg, "A line integral representation of the physical optics far field from plane PEC scatterers illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles," Proceedings of the International Conference on Mathematical methods in electromagnetic theory, Kiev, Ukraine, pp. 257-259, September 2002.
- Peter Meincke, Olav Breinbjerg, and Erik Jørgensen, "The magnetic physical optics scattered field in terms of a line integral," Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, pp. 402-405, July 2000.
- Peter Meincke (Johansen) and Olav Breinbjerg, "An exact line integral representation of the physical optics scattered field: The case of a perfectly conducting polyhedral structure illuminated by electric Hertzian dipoles,"
*IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.,*vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 689-698, July 1995. - Peter Meincke (Johansen), "A rigorous line integral representation of the physical optics scattered field from perfectly conducting plane structures," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Electromagnetics in Aerospace Appl., Politecnico di Torino, Italy, pp. 291-294, Sept. 1993.